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Bullying in the schools - types of Bullying

Bullying in the schools
American Military University
Social Psychology

Groups of children, adolescents and even adults tend to establish hierarchies, whatever the group is always competitive relationships and power between them. As this happens many times is the possibility of influence or simply desired by another using the weaker than would be the person who lacks the ability pro social and suffers from being bullied.
Bullying is one of the ways of intimidating others through harassment, verbal abuse and physical or as it has been doing today using cybernetic devices.
Modernity has grabbed all the countries of the world and cyber bullying is the most modern of the assailants stalking their victims. The cyber bullying includes messenger, text

Literature Review
Bullying refers to, harassment or peer victimization in schools. The word is used to describe these different types of negative behaviors that occur in children and adolescents, ranging from jokes, to ignore or belittle the person, to personal attacks, and even serious abuses, refers to negative situations or actions generated by other partners, and a student is subjected to repeatedly for some time. Sometimes itis an individual who makes the 'bullying', sometimes a group. The bullying, involve physical violence, verbal or social exclusion.
In the bullying are Involved the bullies are those who have a position of leadership and power in a group this person also has features like intelligences or may lack intelligence, or they can be bullies that were or are harassed somewhere, like work, school or at home, this makes them repeat the behavior. Along with the bullies are the spectators, this group reinforce and defend the position of supporting offender wrongdoing. This leads to bullying continue, if viewers decide not to support in any way the bully can stop bullying. After this, the harassment suffered by all the attacks and end up with psychological problems that often comes to suicide.
Bullying and harassment in the school or anywhere, cause in people psychological problems, anxiety and depression is also important to note that can cause eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia (Kaltiala-Heino, Rimpel, Rantanen, and Rimpel, 2000) low self-esteem (O'Moore & Kirkham, 2001), and very poor performance in school (Kochenderfer and Ladd, 1996; Karatzias and Swanson, 2002). This often occurs when someone is obese, and although, we can say that relative, happens to people who have a different physical aspect to what others call to be good looking.

Types of Bullying
You can identify different types of harassment which many of them can go appear simultaneously.
Physical: pushing, attacks that leadto fights.
Verbal: Name-calling, jokes in bad taste, public contempt, ridicule of physical defects.
Psychological: individual lower self-esteem and encourage their sense of fear which leads to various problems such as anxiety, depression, eating disorders and even suicide.
Social isolation and peer groups can reach isolated from their own familiars.
Cyberbullying-Used for the fun of harassing their victims by means of comments, pictures, videos.
All types of bullying are correlated, which makes the victim a life full of fear, grief, depression, anxiety, among other things.

The object of study is bullying in schools. This topic is part of school violence and, more specifically, is violence between students, where a youth is the constant victim of violence that are manifested in various forms. The problem of this study are the subject of conflicting relations in the educational space, producing a distortion of social relations that are developing in it. These may have consequences in the young people involved in the development of classes, creating negative effects on their victims, thus influencing the formation of identities and forms of socialization in the future.General Question What is the attitude of students in schools about bullying?

To know the opinion of the sample in relation to bullying and generalities of the sameTheoretical Framework Bullying has been a growing public notoriety in recent years, mainly due to media exposure which has started strongly in the publicperception of the increase was the frequency, the level of violence associated with the technologies and help to this social problem is known by videos and photographs, especially when broadcast on the network. That exercises the bullying, that is the bully does to impose power over the other, through threats, insults, assaults, harassment and thus bring it under control over months and even years. The victim suffers from a threatening abuse that makes you feel pain, distress, fear, so much so that in some cases, leads asufrir of depression, anxiety and can lead to devastating consequences such as suicide.

Study 1
Methodology Design-Transversal Descriptive Experimental
Variable operationalization Dependent variable: attitude
Independent variable: bullying
Hypothesis: Currently in the secondary is the standard means of bullying. School violence is peculiar to the highly industrialized countries, or in any region of the world.
This research is descriptive and correlational and was conducted in 24 schools of graduates of the University of Nuevo Leon.
1.061 questionnaires were applied to students, 640 teachers and 690 parents and mothers in order to determine the incidence of behaviors of physical, verbal and social exclusion.
Results and Discussion
We found that bullying affects 4 in 10 students who are victims mainly of verbal and social exclusion, so it is less direct physical attacks indirect. The main abuse is that 41.4% of students suffering victims ofperpetrators of defamation, ie speak ill of them, the second is 31.7% of students who are ignored by others, the abuse is the third 30.6% of students who are victims of ofenzas and ridicule, the fourth child abuse is the social exclusion experienced by 19.4% to which the parties from participating in conversations and games and the fifth abuse is from 17.1 % students who hide them or steal things.The students, mostly suffering from this victimization in the classroom of their peers, but physical assault (4.6%) and threats with weapons (1.3%) are also committed in the street when students leave school with the intervention of outside aggressors schools. It is regrettable that in 53.1% of cases this happens since the student entered the school, 23.3% from the students began the semester, 14.2% always and few intervene to stop the situationAre involved in attacks at least 3 out of 10 students, 34.7% agreed they ignore their companions 34% said they speak ill of his fellows in harmful activities such as spreading rumors harmful, 13.6% indicated that prevent their peers to participate in meetings, conversations and / or games, a 3.4% admitted having stuck to his companions, and 1.3% confessed to stealing things. 2.6% also said they had broken personal items hidden things 10.9% and 1% admitted some sexual harassment. This has caused an upset teacher who has led some to suffer from depressive disorders, stress, physical illness that caused them fear and absenteeism. And a certain helplessness to lack of skills to dealwith conflicts.
Theorical Implications
Few parents learn of the abuse, as most students hope these problems to their friends. But those who have good family communication know of the pressures weighing their children from their peers and even teachers, getting to the point of recommending that respond to the attacks in self defense knowing that their children are defenseless against the low intervention of teachers. Victims and aggressors students, parents and teachers attribute the revenge attacks on aspects of the personality of the victim and perpetrator, but this research through correlational study we conducted showed that each violent behavior underlying an absence of positive values have forgotten or poorly taught family and school or to negative values that students learn in social interaction with family and teachers.
Violence and abuse among students, known as bullying, is growing and increasingly affecting the younger children in public and private schools Although there have always been this type of action, was more frequently seen among adolescents, however, is now seen more in children aged nine, including four entering preschool and bullying starts at that level and is exacerbated in primary and secondary or is it more evident, with increasingly serious consequences, with symptoms of depression for longer periods, suicide attempts, fights or physical features incurable, chronic, eating disorders and addiction increased.
Alternatives Against the Bullying
Because the bullying is asocial problem, it is appropiate to Consider the Potential Practical Applications of our data as well. As alternative solution to the bullying has been proposed in all schools and places that as a first resort is dialogue with students who are doing this to others and also dialogue with those being victims of this phenomenon. If this does not stop, we propose to send in writing the situation that has been presented so that parents know the situation and take action with their children. If after all that the situation does not improve the problem must be passed to student welfare and make decisions that address this problem. Avoid every kind of abuse from parents to children (as) and young people, to not act the same way with their classmates or those around them is a very important weapon to prevent bullying. Teachers in any point of view if they mistreat the estudienates few times you do it physically, psychologically constantly do, with the loss of materials or other ways that affect their lives psychologically.
Study 2
No Experimental
Operalization of variables
Dependent Variable: acttitud
Independent Variable: bullying
1. Bullying is associated with relations power within groups.
2. There in the classroom 'status' based on formation of groups in relation to the social identity of individuals.
3. Relationship exists between the person harassed and the attribution of some sort of stigma.
4. The forms of exercise are determined by bullying gender.
Bullying is asituation that has been shown in various studies to be harmful and destructive at any age.
Victims of bullying tend to have low self-esteem, they may feel depressed, insecure, anxious, hypersensitive, cautious and reserved (Berthold & Hoover, 1999; Craig, 1998; Olweus, 1995, Rigby and Slee, 1991a, 1991b Usually these people are locked up in themselves, worried and fearful in new situations (Byrne, 1994).

These people do not have many friends, are lonely and have no happiness that leads to dropping out of school, work or places where they thrive.
There is a difference between women and men on the effects of bullying that this is because women are greatly affected by being socially fact be avoided or be evaluated negatively by their peers (Slee 1995).

This could be examined by a research that was conducted in a high school for two years Australians Peterson and Rigby (1999, 483) found that negative lag effects some had when were bullied.
Results and Discussion
31% of boys and 46% of girls felt worse about themselves.
40% of boys and 60% of girls said they felt angry or sad.
14% of boys and 12% of girls said they were absent from school as a result.
According to these statistics you can see the different emotional issues that affect the bullying by gender. Si the hypothesis number 4 is approved.
Theorical Implications
The bullying has long-term psychological effects such as anti-social behavior and criminal, Patron of Conduct to take any addiction and experiencedifficulty in interpersonal relationships in adulthood. (American Medical Association).
Bullying affects more than one. Both harassment such as harassment and viewers suffer the consequences. The harassed can suffer both physically and psychologically, the stalker may even commit more serious crimes and become a criminal and spectators can get to be harassed, harassing, or may have feeling found which do not have a defined and allow situations to which face.
Moreover, the bullying and cyber bullying, in addition to a great effect on the harassment and humiliation before and after effects of the act, also affects parents and family. This is due to the indignation and suffering for your child being bullied and even reach the point of wanting
revenge for the damage and suffering caused. As there is also the possibility of not supporting your child or relative who has been victimized. With this information the hypothesis one and three is approved.
Now keep in mind that anyone can be victim of bullying. This refers to our familiars such as children. So it is very important to keep up with the academic achievement of children in schools, the behaviors of both children and adults young and their actions and social interactions. Besides knowing about their friends helps to know sit or son or someone close to victim of this phenomenon is well known in 2011 that is bullying. It has taken over 500 lives (Hoover & Stenjhen 2003).
I can indicate that young people who are victims and bullies is because their areto be abused them tend to have the same reaction of the harasser may be in defiance or 'revenge' for what happens. You must take into account that bullying comes in different ways, such as teasing, physical aggression and even sexual.
Alternativas Para combatir el Bulliyng
With the effect that bullying is social problems we see several ways to combat and reduce the statistics of people affected.
These alternatives include: The use of mass media as a vehicle of persuasion to people not to make bullying and if a victim has the courage to denounce the abuse he suffers.
Another alternative would be to organize reunions, parties, parades and even pages on social networks to raise awareness of the devastating results that the bullying can make.
Bullying research started from the 70's in Europe by Dan Olweous, Ph.D., is professor of psychology research from the University of Bergen in Norway. His research in the U.S. was in 1978. But this year 2011 has been promoted much more throughout the American nation.
A studio conducted by Dr. Marissa Medina Piña, University of Puerto Rico has shown that more than 15 countries in U.S. has laws for prevent the bullying. For example we can mention: California, Colorado, New York, New Jersey. This studio also has 3.7 million young people who incur these acts and 3.2 million are victims and 1.2 million are victims and bullies. (Hoover & Stenjmen)
Today date exist the cyber bullying but the people in charge for working with the network are working forcontra rest the cyber bullying with network Rules.
Network Rules
Some researches conducted by Dra, Virginia Bendel; Sydney, Tara D. (2009) Social networks and instant messaging with software providers have their rules and service conditions at the time that people who agree to accept on their social pages this is one of the actions that help prevent and prohibit the same time cyber bullying. Sometimes the motivation for carrying out the harassment is based on hatred or prejudice against someone who is of a different race, religion, physical differences, or different sexual orientation. The different ways of support and education is to educate students through forums, policies and activities in school and the community also help to reduce this type of harassment. This is done by intimating to the student, parents and teachers should not use a computer to mock or attack other people, steal, lie about their identity or interfere with work or studies of others. But due to use computers and social networks to help the positive aspects of the personal and social development.

Although bullying and cyber bullying is one of the phenomena that is affecting young children and adults today, should be aware that we must all work together to prevent it. If at any time we witness an event of this we must find ways to prevent it. Whether talking and guiding parents, teachers and bosses that a person or student is being bullied and should take measures to avoid or break the chain of physical violence,verbal, psychology that someone else is facing.
Bullying is not a game where the strongest is the Prevalence is a social problem that can affect anyone, that can cause irreversible damage such as death.
No one should underestimate the fear that a child or adolescent may feel intimidated by that bullying is not a joke.
'We have learned to fly like birds and swim like fish but we have not learned the simple art of living together as brothers' Martin Luther King

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