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Archimides Biography  Archimedes of SyracuseArchimedes
Archimedes is generally considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time. He used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of pi 4] He also defined the spiral bearing his name, formulae for thevolumes of surfaces of revolution and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers. Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Mathematicians from Biography This bronze statue of Archimedes is at the Archenhold Observatory in Archimedes was born c. 287 BC inthe seaport city of Archimedes died c. 212 BC during the Second Punic War, when Roman forces under General Marcus Claudius Marcellus captured the city of A sphere has 2/3 the volume and surface area of its circumscribing cylinder. A sphere and cylinder were placed on the tomb of Archimedes at his request. The last words attributed to Archimedes are 'Do not disturb my circles' (Greek: μI® τI¬ραττε), a reference to the circles in the mathematical drawing that he was supposedly studying when disturbed by the Roman soldier. This quote is often given in Latin as 'Noli turbare circulos meos,' but there is no reliable evidence that Archimedes uttered these words and they do not appear in the account given by Plutarch. The tomb of Archimedes carried a sculpture illustrating his favorite mathematical proof, consisting of a sphere and a cylinder of the same height and diameter. Archimedes had proven that the volume and surface area of the sphere are two thirds that of the cylinder including its bases. In 75 BC, 137 years after his death, the Roman orator Cicero was serving asquaestor in The standard versions of the life of Archimedes were written long after his death by the historians of Ancient Rome. The account of the siege of Discoveries and inventions The Golden Crown Archimedes may have used his principle of buoyancy to determine whether the golden crown was less dense than solid gold. The most widely known anecdote about Archimedes tells of how he invented a method for determining the volume of an object with an irregular shape. According to Vitruvius, a votive crown for a temple had been made for King Hiero II, who had supplied the pure gold to be used, and Archimedes was asked to determine whether some silver had been substituted by the dishonest goldsmith. Archimedes had to solve the problem withoutdamaging the crown, so he could not melt it down into a regularly shaped body in order to calculate its density. While taking a bath, he noticed that the level of the water in the tub rose as he got in, and realized that this effect could be used to determine the volume of the crown. For practical purposes water is incompressible, so the submerged crown would displace an amount of water equal to its own volume. By dividing the mass of the crown by the volume of water displaced, the density of the crown could be obtained. This density would be lower than that of gold if cheaper and less dense metals had been added. Archimedes then took to the streets naked, so excited by his discovery that he had forgotten to dress, crying ' The story of the golden crown does not appear in the known works of Archimedes. Moreover, the practicality of the method it describes has been called into question, due to the extreme accuracy with which one would have to measure the water displacement. Archimedes may have instead sought a solution that applied the principle known in hydrostatics as Archimedes' Principle, which he describes in his treatise On Floating Bodies. This principle states that a body immersed in a fluid experiences a buoyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Using thisprinciple, it would have been possible to compare the density of the golden crown to that of solid gold by balancing the crown on a scale with a gold reference sample, then immersing the apparatus in water. If the crown was less dense than gold, it would displace more water due to its larger volume, and thus experience a greater buoyant force than the reference sample. This difference in buoyancy would cause the scale to tip accordingly. Galileo considered it 'probable that this method is the same that Archimedes followed, since, besides being very accurate, it is based on demonstrations found by Archimedes himself.' The Archimedes Screw The Archimedes screw can raise water efficiently. A large part of Archimedes' work in engineering arose from fulfilling the needs of his home city of The Claw of Archimedes The Claw of Archimedes is a weapon that he is said to have designed in order to defend the city of The Archimedes Heat Ray – myth or reality? Archimedes may have used mirrors acting collectively as a parabolic reflector to burn ships attacking The 2nd century AD author Lucian wrote that during the Siege of Syracuse (c. 214–212 BC), Archimedes destroyed enemy ships with fire. Centuries later, Anthemius ofTralles mentions burningglasses as Archimedes' weapon. The device, sometimes called the 'Archimedes heat ray', was used to focus sunlight onto approaching ships, causing them to catch fire. This purported weapon has been the subject of ongoing debate about its credibility since the Renaissance. René Descartes rejected it as false, while modern researchers have attempted to recreate the effect using only the means that would have been available to Archimedes. It has been suggested that a large array of highly polished bronze or copper shields acting as mirrors could have been employed to focus sunlight onto a ship. This would have used the principle of the parabolic reflector in a manner similar to a solar furnace. A test of the Archimedes heat ray was carried out in 1973 by the Greek scientist Ioannis Sakkas. The experiment took place at the Skaramagas naval base outside In October 2005 a group of students from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology carried out an experiment with 127 onefoot (30 cm) square mirrortiles, focused on a mockup wooden ship at a range of around 100 feet (30 m). Flames broke out on a patch of the ship, but only after the sky had been cloudless and the ship had remained stationary for around ten minutes. It was concluded that the device was a feasible weapon under these conditions. The MIT group repeated the experiment for the television show MythBusters, using a wooden fishing boat in When MythBusters broadcast the result of the San Francisco experiment in January 2006, the claim was placed in the category of 'busted' (or failed) because of the length of time and the ideal weather conditions required for combustion to occur. It was also pointed out that since Other discoveries and inventions While Archimedes did not invent the lever, he gave an explanation of the principle involved in his work On the Equilibrium of Planes. Earlier descriptions of the lever are found inthe Peripatetic school of the followers of Aristotle, and are sometimes attributed to Archytas.[29][30] According to Pappus of Alexandria, Archimedes' work on levers caused him to remark: 'Give me a place to stand on, and I will move the Earth.' (Greek: s¶ς πá¾¶ s¶ καá½¶ τá½°ν γá¾¶ν κινI¬σω) Plutarch describes how Archimedes designed blockandtackle pulley systems, allowing sailors to use the principle of leverage to lift objects that would otherwise have been too heavy to move. Archimedes has also been credited with improving the power and accuracy of the catapult, and with inventing the odometer during the First Punic War. The odometer was described as a cart with a gear mechanism that dropped a ball into a container after each mile traveled Cicero (106–43 BC) mentions Archimedes briefly in his dialogue De re publica, which portrays a fictional conversation taking place in 129 BC. After the capture of Hanc sphaeram Gallus cum moveret, fiebat ut soli luna totidem conversionibus in aere illo quot diebus in ipso caelo succederet, ex quo et in caelo sphaera solis fieret eadem illa defectio, et incideret luna tum in eam metam quae esset umbra terrae, cum sol e regione. — When Gallus moved the globe, it happened that the Moon followed the Sun by as many turns on that bronze contrivance as in the sky itself, from which also in the sky the Sun's globe became to have that same eclipse, and the Moon came then to that position which was its shadow on the Earth, when the Sun was in line. This is a description of a planetarium or orrery. Pappus of Archimedes Palimpsest Main article: Archimedes Palimpsest Stomachion is a dissection puzzle in theArchimedes Palimpsest. The foremost document containing the work of Archimedes is the Archimedes Palimpsest. In 1906, the Danish professor Johan Ludvig Heiberg visited The treatises in the Archimedes Palimpsest are: On the Equilibrium of Planes, On Spirals, Measurement of a Circle, On the Sphere and the Cylinder, On Floating Bodies, The Method of Mechanical Theorems and Stomachion. Legacy The Fields Medal carries a portrait of Archimedes. There is a crater on the Moon named Archimedes (29.7° N, 4.0° W) in his honor, as well as a lunar mountain range, the Montes Archimedes (25.3° N, 4.6° W). The asteroid 3600 Archimedes is named after him. The Fields Medal for outstanding achievement in mathematics carries a portrait of Archimedes, along with his proof concerning the sphere and the cylinder. The inscription around the head of Archimedes is a quote attributed to him which reads in Latin: 'Transire suum pectus mundoque potiri' (Rise above oneself and grasp the world). Archimedes has appeared on postage stamps issued by East Germany (1973), Greece (1983), Italy (1983), Nicaragua (1971), San Marino (1982), and Spain (1963) The exclamation of Eureka! attributed to Archimedes is the state motto of A movement for civic engagement targeting universal access to health care in the Política de privacidad 
